Costly Consequences: The Implications of the Ninth Circuit’s Interpretation of the Clean Water Act

By: Elizabeth Platt Congress enacted the Clean Water Act (CWA) to restore and maintain the nation’s waters.[1] The National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) is the primary system for issuing permits and controlling point sources.[2] NPDES permits are issued one of two ways. Either, the EPA administrator may issue permits,[3] or EPA may authorize a […]